2016

  • Prinicipal Investigator(s): Petra Todd
    Award Dates: July 1, 2016 - June 30, 2017
    Aim: This project will develop and estimate a model to understand the impact of personality traits on individual’s schooling and occupational choices and the potential feedback effect of schooling and occupational experience on the evolution of personality traits. The analysis will inform about the determinants of unobserved heterogeneity, which has been found to be important in the prior literature, and provide us a baseline framework to evaluate the effect of educational policies, such as college tuition subsidy. Thus, this project helps to: (1) understand the potential causal relationship between personality traits and educational and occupational choices; (2) quantify how heterogeneity of workers’ personality traits affects lifetime earnings and inequality, and (3) evaluate the redistribution effect of college tuition subsidy policy.
  • Prinicipal Investigator(s): Samuel Preston
    Award Dates: July 1, 2016 - June 30, 2017
    Aim: The most commonly-cited estimator of the contribution of diabetes to American mortality is the frequency of its appearance on death certificates as the underlying cause of death. Diabetes was listed as the underlying cause of death on 69,091 death certificates, or 2.8% of total deaths, in 2010.1 However, the frequency with which diabetes is listed as the underlying cause of death is not a reliable indicator of its actual contribution to the national mortality profile. In this research, we estimate the proportion of deaths attributable to diabetes by using nationally representative cohorts to identify the excess mortality risk among people with diabetes together with the prevalence of diabetes among deaths to estimate the fraction of deaths that would not have occurred in the absence of diabetes, i.e., the Population Attributable Fraction (PAF).
  • Prinicipal Investigator(s): Matthew McHugh
    Award Dates: July 1, 2016 - June 30, 2017
    Aim: The Project aims to determine whether outcomes for patients with AD are better when they are cared for in hospitals with better nursing resources (patient-to-nurse staffing ratios, skill mix, nurses’ education, and the quality of the work environment). We expect to confirm that outcomes are worse for patients with AD than for similar patients without AD. However, patients with AD will fare better when cared for in hospitals with better nursing resources. It also aims to determine whether racial and ethnic disparities in AD outcomes are narrowed in hospitals with better nursing resources (patient-to-nurse staffing ratios, nurses’ education, skill mix, and the quality of the work environment). We expect to find that outcomes are worse for patients with AD who are minorities but the gap between minorities and non-minorities will be less in hospitals with better nursing resources.